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Abantwana Bayalila


Copyright 2018 Philasande Wiseman Mfaba

Published by Philasande Wiseman Mfaba at Smashwords




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Isiqulatho


Amabalengwe ngombhali

Intshayelelo

Yintoni imibongo - Umahluko phakathi kombongo wesiba kunye nesibongo somthonyana?

Izinongo zemibongo

Iindidi zemibongo

Uhlalutyo lwemibongo

Imibongo: Engabantu basetyhini:

Le yintombentle

Maqhawekazi

UnguNtombikayise

Tyeke tyeke uyamthanda

Ekhuthazayo

Isazela

Mamelani uthume mna

Nabu ubutyebi

Phila okwenkosi

Uyotya bona obo buthongo

Vukani Bantwana

Engendalo.

Tyaph’ ufike

Unezimbo

Elumkisayo

Abantwana bayalila

Amehl’ abomvu

Zifunz’ uxolo

Ungumntu ukulunga oku

Engabantu namazwe

Amaqhawe akwaxhosa

Ha! Yem Yem

Lo nguSasa

NdingumXhosa

Iimpendulo

Uluhlu lweencwadi ezisetyenzisiweyo

Qhagamshelana noPhilasande Mfaba

Amabalengwe ngombhali.

UPhilasande Wiseman Mfaba wazalelwa eMatatiele eMpuma koloni waze wakhulela eGoli eSoweto. uPhilasande uzalwa nguNomlindo Mfaba intombi yakwaDuma. Amabanga aphantsi uwafunde eMagaret Gwele, aphezulu wona wawafunda eBhukulani Senior Secondary School. Ukupapashwa kwale ncwadi lo wakwaMfaba wenza izifundo zakhe zee-Masters kwisiXhosa eRhodes University.

Intshayelelo

IsiXhosa saqalwa ukubhalwa ngonyaka ka-1823 nguMnu John Bennie ingcaphephe yezolwimi. Ukususela ngoko olu lwimi khange lubheke mva. IsiXhosa sinazo izinto eziliqela elizibhaliliyo, ooMqhayi, Jolobe, Mona, Tamsanqa, Mcimeli nabanye basiwonge ngomthabalala wezinto ezibhalwe ngesiXhosa ze bongeza nababhali abatsha esingaquka kubo ooSiphatheleni Kula nabanye. Ababhali abatsha mva nje sebebhala nezincokwana, abanye babhala ngentlalo yakwaXhosa. Inani lamaphephandaba abhalwe ngesiXhosa liya lisonyuka mihla le.

Ukanti nokwizixhobo zobuxhakaxhaka asisileli mva kakhulu isiXhosa ngokubhalwa. Kuzo zonke ezi zinto zibhalwayo andikholwa ukuba ikho into ebhalwe njengesihobe. Isihobe saqalwa kudala ukubhalwa ooBawu uJolobe besadla amazimba, kunanamhla baya ngokwanda ababhali ababhala olu didi lokubhala. Bakho ababhali abafana nathi ababhalela ukushicilela ukanti zikwakho neembhongi ezibhalela ukubonga zingade zishicilele.

Le ncwadi yongeza kuloo mvula yemibongo esele ibhaliwe ngababhali abaliqela. Le yimibongo esuku kumazwi olutsha ibhalwe kwixesha langoku kusetyenziswa ulwimi lwangoko kodwa ke isiXhosa asilahlwanga kwaphela. Le ncwadi iqulathe imibongo engamashumi amabini (20).

Umbhali lo undim uzabe uyaqala ngqa ukupapashwa kodwa ukubhala oku yinto endayiqala ndisancanca ibele, kwaye ndiyakwathembisa kananjalo ukuba njembe ipapashiwe le ncwadi ndiyoqhubeka ndibhale kuze kuphume izandla. Ndinethemba lokuba nizakuyonwabela le mibongo kwaye nifunde lukhulu kuyo.

Inga uThixo anganani.

Umahluko phakathi kombongo wesiba kunye nesibongo somthonyana?

UNyamende (2010) uthi izibongo zemveli zizibongo ezazithi zigcinwe ngentloko, zazingabhalwa phantsi ukutsho. Uqhuba athi ezi zibongo zibonakala kwiziduko zethu kunye nakwizibongo zeenkosi. Iimbongi zemveli zazibonga yonke into, zazibonga indalo, abantu, izilo, izilwanyane kunye neenkosi (Nyamende, 2010).

Umbongo wona wohlukile kwizibongo zomthonyana kuba wona ubhaliwe, ungagqibi nje ngokubhalwa uphinde ube ngumbongo othe walungiselelwa into ethi imbongi yosiba iba nalo ixesha lokulungiselela ukucengceleza umbongo wayo. Iimbongo zemveli zona zazivele zindanduluke zibonge xa zithe zachukumiseka ngaphandle kokuthi zicwangcise loo nto zifuna ukuyibonga.

Loo nto yayivamise ukuthi yenzeke kumatheko afana nokwaluka, intonjane, ukubekwa kwenkosi njalo njalo. Imibongo yomthonyana seyiyabhalwa kwezi ntsuku ngokuthi umbhali lowo ayomamela imbongi yomthonyana xa ibonga kwitheko elithile. Nobuxhakaxhaka obukhoyo benza kube lula ukuyibhala phantsi le mibongo (Nyamende 2010, Jadezweni, 2008). Kaloku imbongi yomthonyana ithi apho ichukumiseke khona ibonge ingakwazi ukuwuphinda lo mbongo uthi wena ubungekho ube kanti uphosiwe, yiyo loo nto ababhali beyibhala phantsi lo mibongo.

Izinongo zemibongo

Izafobe

Umbongo ungafana nawo nawuphi na umbhalo xa zingekho izafobe. Izafobe ziniki incasa kumbongo ziwenze ube nomdla kwaye wohluke kwezinye izinto ezibhaliweyo. Kubalulekile ukuba imbongi izikhethe kakuhle izafobe zayo, zingene kwindawo eyiyo kwaye ziyicacise kakuhle intsingiselo yaloo nto kuthethwa ngayo. Nantsi imizekelo nengcazelo ethe vetshe ngezafobe.

A) Isikweko- isikweko kulapho ufanisa umntu nento okanye into kunye nenye into ngokuthi loo nto uyifanisayo uthi yiloo nto uyifanisa nayo. Umzekelo utyebe yihagu. Kumaxesha amaninzi abantu bakwekwa ngezilwanyane. Umsebenzi wesikweko kukubonisa isenzeko kunye nenkangeleko yaloo nto okanye loo mntu umkwekwayo.


B) Isifaniso- isifaniso soyamile kwisikweko kodwa sona sisebenzisa okwe, njenge, endaweni yokuthi into yiyo xa uyifanisa. Umzekelo utyebe okwehagu. Okanye uthi utyebe njengehagu.


C) Umbuzo buciko- umbuzo buciko ngumbuzo ofumaneka kumbongo ube loo mbuzo ungafuni mpendulo. Umsebenzi wombuzo buciko kukugxininisa into ethile okanye ukuvelisa izimvo okanye iingcinga zombhali. Nanku umzekelo; ‘kanti kufa ufunani? Kukufa okutheni na oku? Le mibuzo akulindelekanga ukuba umfundi ayiphendule koko iveza ukuba umbhali akukuqondi oku kufa kusisimanga kuyamxaka.


D) Isimntwiso- isimntwiso sinqabile kwimibongo, sidle ngokubakho kumabali ingakumbi kwiintsomi. Isimntwiso kulapho isilwanyana zinikwa indima yomntu senza izinto ezingenziwa ngabantu, kwemanye amabali ezi zilwanyane zide zithethe, zibe namakhaya, iimpahla, usapho, nezinto ongazilindela ebantwini.


E) Ubaxo- ubaxo kulapho uthatha into encinane uyichaze njengento enkulukazi ukugxininisa isenzeko esenziwe ngumntu okanye into. Umzekelo ulile watsho ngengxangxazi zeenyembezi. Siyazi sonke ukuba nokuba ungalila kangakanani soze uze ulile iingxangxazi, iinyembezi apha zibaxiwe kuba umbhali efuna ukunika umfanekiso ngqondweni okanye ecacisa indlela alile ngayo loo mntu.


F) Isihlonipho- ngokwentlalo yakwaXhosa zikho izinto ezingabizwa njengoko zinjalo, kulapho uthi usebenzise khona isihlonipho. KwaNtu akuthiwa umntu omdala unxilile, badla ngokuthi uqhuba amatakane, okanye ushushu, abanye bade bathe uhluthi. Le ntetho ixhaphake kakhulu kwimibongo.


G) Isifanekisozwi- Isifanekisozwi ligama elithi elicacisa isenzeko, isichazi, isihlomelo, umbala, isandi njalo njalo. Kwamanye amaxesha isifanekisozwi siyakwazi ukuthi sizimele ezi zigaba zentetho zidweliswe ngentla (Kaschula, 1988).

Ikhephu limhlophe qhwa (umzekelo wesifanekisozwi esicacisa umbala).

Wawa bhaxa eludakeni (isifanekisozwi esicacisa isandi) jikelele ngqu (isifanekisozwi esicacisa isenzeko).

Dyumpu yangena emanzini loo fowuni (Isifanekisozwi esimele isenzi).


Ezinye izinongo zombongo

A) Imfano siqalo - Apha kubhekiswe konobumba bokuqala kwizitanza abathi bafane ekuqaleni komqolo ngomqolo.

Umzekelo:

Nimbeka amabala uSombawo kungani?

Nina anazi ukuba utshintsho luqala ngani?

Nasong’ izandla nje nithi nizotya ntoni?

Nina nizibiza ngamagama nizibone njani?


B) Imfano siphelo - imfano siphelo ivela konobumba bokugqibela kwisitanza, ngoonobumba abathi bafane kumqolo ngomqolo

umzekelo:

Lusizi abantwan’ abakhulisanayo,

Yindlala akukho namye usebenzayo,

Nalowo uzingelayo akabuyi nephathekayo


C) Isingqisho - isingqisho bubuchule obufumaneka kakhulu kwimibongo apho umbali athi ahambise amagama ngobuchule, alandelane ngokuphantse zifane izandi zawo. UJadezweni (2008) uchaza isingqisho ngolu hlobo: “… Ngumgqusho hokuhamba kwamagama njengokuba uwabiza xa uwufunda umhobe. Lo mngqusho uhambelana nomlinganiselo umbhali azimenteshe ngawo iivesi zakhe” (118).


D) Isifanodumo - Apha kubhalwa isandi okanye indumo eyenziwa yinto ethile. Umzekelo u-vum vum sisifanodumo esicacisa ukuduma kwemoto, uBhum Bhum! Sisigubhu, unkqonkqo ngumnyango, u-fa fa yimvula njalo njalo.


E) Uphinda phindo - apha ufumanisa ukuba igama elinye liphinda-phindwe kaliqela, kumaxesha amaninzi kusetyenziswa isithethantonye, igama elinye libhalwe ngeendlela ezahlukileyo. Umzekelo ndizele yimincili, nochulumanco ndonwabile kuthi mandikhwaze. Amagama akrwelelwe umgca zizithethantonye. Uphinda phindo lusetyenziswa ukugxininisa into ethile.


F) Isinciphiso/isenyeliso - Kwisinciphiso kudla ngokusetyenziswa u-ana ekugqibeleni kwento leyo inciphiswayo okanye yenyeliswayo. Umzekelo thatha loo nkomana yakho; ndinike elo phetshana.




Iindidi zemibongo

A) Isonethi - Isonethi lolona hlobo lombongo luqheleke kakhulu. Lo mbongo uba nemigca elishumi elinesine (14). Uba nezitanza ezimbini, isitanza ngasinye sinemiqolo esixhenxe (7). Isitanza ngasinye siqulethe umxholo owohlukileyo kunomnye.


Nanku umzekelo:

Ungunin’ wesizwe qhiy’ engwevu siyaziqhenya

Uyimbokodo, bambo lwethu sinebhongo.

Lity’ elibi elaqhekeze iindonga zocalu-calulo

Litye elingqukuva elakhuph’ uBotha iduma,

Waphum’ okwejoni ulwelw’ isizwe sakho,

Umel’ umyen’ wakho, wenzel’ abantwa bakho.

Sibong’ ubugorha bakho, namhl sikhululekile


Mongameli weentsana nosapho

Nasekhay’ uvum’ elococeko nentlonipho,

Uqand’ iintsana kucalu-calulo uzolusele kuntlalonye.

Intlal’ intle nje, nguwe lo, iintlanga zongana nje nguwe lo

Ntlantsana ndini esiqhwita kuyo sibasel’ intlombe.

Loo ntloko ilula yakh’ intlal’ entla eMzantsi.

Sibong’ ubuciko bakho namhla sonwabile


B) Umbongo-mbaliso - lo umbongo ubalisa ngesiganeko esithile esake senzeka kwixesha eladlulayo. Nanku umzekelo:


Ukutshona Kukamendi (SEK Mqhayi).


Ewe, le nto kakade yinto yaloo nto.

Thina, nto zaziyo, asothukanga nto;

Sibona kamhlope, sithi bekumelwe,

Sitheth'engqondweni, sithi kufanelwe;

Xa bekungenjalo bekungayi kulunga.

Ngoko ke, Sotase! Kwaqal'ukulunga!

Le nqanaw', umendi, namhla yendisile,

Na'igazi lethu lisikhonzisile!


Asinithenganga ngazo izicengo;

Asinithenganga ngayo imibengo;

Bekungenganzuzo zimakhwesikhwezi,

Bekungenganzuzo ingangeenkwenkwezi.

Sikwatsho nakuni, bafel'eAfrika,

KwelaseJamani yaseMpumalanga,

NelaseJamani yaseNtshonalanga.

Bekungembek'eninayo kuKumkani,

Bekungentobeko yenu kwiBritani


C) Umbongo-ngcazo- lo umbongo uchaza into ethile, ingaba ngumthi, izityalo, izilwanyane nantoni na imbongi efuna ukuyichaza. Umzekelo:


Abasethyini (ngu H S Bunge)

Luncuthu-mazangwa kwintliziy’ elambileyo,

ubus’ abufiki kolwakh’ unambitheko ngumpholisi- ntliziy’eshushu,

Bube yimbali kwebibuhlungu ubuhlungu.

Yintombi ke leyo umvusi-nzond’ engekhoyo

ekhotha kome nolweemvek’ uthando kubengoosal’enxuweni bodwa bakubhubh’ abazali

(lo mhlathi uthathwe kuJadezweni, 2008).


D) Umbongo-mfundiso- lo umbongo ufundisa abafundi ngento ethile, ungafundisa ngesimile, Ubuntu, intlonipho njalo njalo.


E) Indumasiso - lo ngumbongo omde kakhulu othi ubalise ngembali ethile.


F) Isimbambazelo - lo ngumbongo ongomntu ungasekhoyo, kumaxesha amaninzi iba ligorha elithile, inkosi okanye umntu odlale indima enkulu esaphila. Imibongo yeenkosi namaqhawe omzabalazo ngumzekelo wesimbambazelo.


Uhlalutyo lwemibongo

UJadezweni (2008) uthi ezona ngongoma zibalulekile kumbongo zezi:


• Iziganeko eziphambili zomhobe lowo.

• Intsingiselo equlathwe nguloo mhobe

• Indlela ovakala ngayo umbongo/imvakalelo, ingaba luthando, usizi, intlungu nantoni na ebangela ukuba imbongi ibhale isihobe sayo.

• Indawo apho zenzekela khona iziganeko kumbongo.

• Izithako okanye izinongo ezisetyenziswe kuloo mbongo.

Ukanti xa uhlalutya umbongo usengajonga:

• Nomyalezo oqulethwe ngumbongo, ingabe umbongo lo uyafundisa, uyazisa, uyabalisa, uyakhumbuza njalo njalo.

• Uhlobo lombongo. Ingabe yisonethi, ngumbongo-mbaliso njalo njalo.

• Isigama esisetyenziswe kumbongo. Ezinye iimbongi zidla ngokuntsokotha kakhulu kwisigama, ezinye zisebenzise izafobe kakhulu ukuphuhlisa intsingiselo ukanti ezinye zibhala isiXhosa esiqhelekileyo.

• Isihloko. Isihloko sitshayelela umbongo lowo uzakuwufunda. Izihloko ziyama kakhulu kumbongo, xa isihloko sisithi ugawulayo uyazi ukuba imbongi izakuthetha ngogawulayo hayi iziyobisi. Izihloko zinceda umfundi ukuba akhethe loo mbongo afuna ukuwufunda, nababhali bacwangcise iincwadi zabo ngokwezihloko zemibongo.

Imibongo Engabantu basetyhini


Le yintombentle

Akunanto intle nguye nelanga kusasa,

Akunamntu mhle, nguye nomaMlambo qha

Akuyohashe awakhe umkhitha weqisile.

Akunandalo intle, neentyantyambo ziyambawela,

Neentaka ziyamtyilozela, zicula zimbonga.

Nezinja azimkhnkothi, ziyamamkela, ziyamqhwabela, nazo ziyambawela.


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